There are various cryptographic algorithms for a secret key, public key and hash functions.
Secret Key Cryptography
Secret key or private key cryptography is a widely used and relatively simple encryption technique. It supports encryption and decryption of data using a secret private key shared between the sender and the receiver. The same key will be used for encrypting a message into cipher text and decrypting the cipher text into the original message. As only a single key is shared between the communicators, so there are high risks of unauthorized access if an attacker gains access to the secret key. To make the secret key based encryption stronger, a public key concept has been added to it.
Aes or Advanced Encryption Standards
AES is a replacement for DES. AES is a symmetric block cipher generating an algorithm that is used for protecting sensitive data and secure applications. It was developed as an enhancement of the DES algorithm that was vulnerable to brute force attacks. AES was developed by aiming at protecting US government information. The objectives were to develop an easy to implement an algorithm that can be implemented in software and hardware and will be robust enough to guard against various information security attacks.
Confidentiality, integrity, and availability are three of the primary requirements of information security or Info Sec. Confidentiality is one of the important requirement for any information security system or implementation. It protects resources and information from unauthorized accesses. Hence, it needs tools and techniques for ensuring confidentiality of a resource.
Data is a valuable asset for individuals and for businesses. A wide range of personal and sensitive data including bank details, credit card details, governmental data are exchanged over the internet. To keep these data protected from unauthorized accesses, it needs to use suitable cryptographic applications and standards. Encryption helps in implementation of authorization and keeping data protected. AES is a robust and widely used encryption technique that is used for secure file transfer and data transfer not only on computers but on mobile platforms also.