System integration is particularly critical because it is at the integration stage that incompatibilities between the different sub-systems or components may come to light. Generally, the first view that a customer has of a system is after integration.
Sociotechnical difficulties that may arise are:
1. Refusal of parts of the team to recognise problems. Some developers may refuse to recognise that their software is faulty and may try to pass the blame for integration problems to people in different organisations. Different organizations in the integration team are, essentially, trying to transfer the costs to other organizations.
2. Cultural problems due to different organizational approaches to integration. Integration is perhaps the first time that teams have had to work closely together and their organizations may use different processes for system integration. Reconciling these processes can be difficult.
3. Organizations may be at different stages in their project involvement. For some organizations, integration may be their last project activity and their objective is simply to complete and sign off the process as quickly as possible. For other organizations, there may be later work to be done so they may have a longer-term perspective and wish to spend more time on the integration process.