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Read Turing’s original paper on AI (Turing, 1950). In the paper, he discusses several objections to his proposed enterprise and his test for intelligence. Which objections still carry weight? Are his refutations valid? Can you think of new objections arising from developments since he wrote the paper? In the paper, he predicts that, by the year 2000, a computer will have a 30% chance of passing a five-minute Turing Test with an unskilled interrogator. What chance do you think a computer would have today? In another 50 years?

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Solution:

Turing has tackled the problem of machine intelligence. Computers cannot think, so he investigated and considered the possibility of artificial intelligence for many years.

Objections:

• Objections of Turing carry some weight today also like theoretical objection and theological objection because they are not real and it is programmed.

The commonly used objections are:

• Consciousness objection

• This objection leads that machines can’t feel emotions in the same way as humans.

• Lady Lovelaces objection

• This objection leads that machines can only do what they are programmed.

The other objections are:

The chimpanzee’s objection:

• According to the first objection, the test is too conservative. Few would deny that chimpanzees can think, yet no chimpanzee can pass the Turing test. If thinking animals could fail, then presumably a thinking computer also can also fail the Turing test.

The sense organs objection:

• This test focused on the computer’s ability to make verbal responses. It doesn’t respond to the objects that are seen and touched like a human does.

Simulation objection:

• Suppose a computer passes the Turing test. How can we say that it thinks? Success in the test means only that it has shown simulation of thinking.

• The black box objection:

• The black box is a device whose inner workings are allowed to be a mystery. The computer involved is treated as a black box. The judgment of whether a computer thinks or not is based on outward behaviour.

Predictions:

The probability shows how the unskilled interrogator fools the skilled interrogator is.

• In 2002, one entrant fools the one judge in the Loebner prize competition.

• It is hard to imagine what that judge was thinking, although if look at the transcript.

• Some of the examples are chatbot or other online agents fooling the humans.

For example, Julia chatbot with the Lenny Foner’s account:

foner.www.media.mit.edu/people/foner/Julia/.

• We did say that the variation in the skill of the interrogator depending more rather than on the program, the chance today is nearly 10%.

In 50 years, to create credible impersonators, the entertainment industry made sufficient investments in artificial actors.

Based on the computer performances nowadays, it will have almost 90% chances to clear a five-minute test of Turing.

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