a. We can apply the first short cut to all bytes here. The result is **(22.14.0.0).**

b. We can apply the first short cut to all bytes here. The result is **(12.0.0.0).**

c. We can apply the first short cut to bytes 1 and 4; we need to apply the second short cut to bytes 2 and 3. The result is **(14.72.0.0).**

d. We can apply the first short cut to bytes 1 and 4; we need to apply the second short cut to bytes 2 and 3. The result is **(28.0.32.0).**