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“Surely animals, humans, and computers cannot be intelligent—they can do only what their constituent atoms are told to do by the laws of physics.” Is the latter statement true, and does it imply the former?

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The given statements are

1. Surely animals, humans, and computers cannot be intelligent.

2. They can do only what their constituent atoms are told to do by the laws of physics.
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From the given statements, the second (latter) one is not true. According to the laws of physics, animals are not equally intelligent at all tasks. Here, intelligence refers to the performance of various tasks, and this performance may depend crucially on the animal’s normal behaviors.

The former statement states that computers cannot be intelligent because they can do only what their programmers tell them. Animals cannot be intelligent they can do only what their genes tell them.

There is a possibility that computers might become just as intelligent as humans. It has been suggested that intelligent systems (humans, animals, and computers) achieve their intelligence by manipulating symbols of real-world items. The symbolic manipulation processes are similar in all such systems.

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