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Stored-program concept: Storage of instructions in computer memory to enable it to perform a variety of tasks in sequence or intermittently. The idea was introduced in the late 1940s by John von Neumann, who proposed that a program be electronically stored in binary-number format in a memory device so that instructions could be modified by the computer as determined by intermediate computational results. Other engineers, notably John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, contributed to this idea, which enabled digital computers to become much more flexible and powerful. Nevertheless, engineers in England built the first stored-program computer, the Manchester Mark I, shortly before the Americans built EDVAC, both operational in 1949.

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