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Following are the delay components that may occur while sending a packet from a source host to a destination host over a fixed route:

• Processing delay: Processing delay is fixed. Processing delays depends on several factors such as time taken to check the packet header, time taken to check errors in the packet etc.

• Transmission delay: Transmission delay is fixed. It is the time taken to transmit all the bits of the packet into the link.

• Propagation delay: Propagation delay is fixed. It is the time taken to travel from the beginning of the link to router B.

• Queuing delay: Queuing delay is variable. It is the time spent waiting in the queue to be transmitted onto the link. If the packet is the only packet to be transmitted then the queuing delays will be zero.

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