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1. Principal responsibilities of Application layer:

• Different applications related to network and corresponding application-layer protocols reside in this layer.

• Some of the protocols that are present in this layer are HTTP, SMTP, and FTP.

o HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer web documents.

o SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) is used to exchange and transfer electronic mails.

o FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is used to transfer files from one node to other node in the network.

• The protocols of this layer are distributed over multiple end systems.

• The application in the system of one end will exchange the packets of information with the application present in the system at the other end.

2. Principal responsibilities of Transport Layer:

• The main responsibility of transport layer is to transport the messages of application-layer between two endpoints.

• The main protocols used to transport the messages are TCP and UDP.

• The TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a connection-oriented service provider. This protocol guarantees the delivery of messages. It also provides flow control

• The UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is connection less service provider. It doesn’t provide flow control or congestion control.

3. Network Layer:

• The main responsibility of the network layer is to move the packets of data (known as datagrams) between any two hosts in the network.

• The service provided by this layer is similar to the postal service. It moves the datagrams and delivers them based on the destination address.

• The protocol in this layer is IP (Internet Protocol) protocol which defines the fields of the datagram. Based on the address field, the datagrams are delivered.

4. Datalink Layer:

• The main responsibility of datalink layer is to move the packets from one node (here node may be a router, a host or any other network device) to the next node through an optimal route.

• Network layer relays on this layer for datagram delivery.

• The protocols like PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) are employed in this layer for finding the optimal route.

• The protocols in this layer are dependent on the specific link that is employed for moving the data packet.

5. Physical Layer:

• The main responsibility of physical layer is to move the individual bits within the frame from one node (here node may be a router, a host or any other network device) to the next node through physical transmission media.

• The protocols in this layer are dependent on the specific link that is employed for moving the data packet.

• Different physical media require different protocols. The protocol to transfer the bits using twisted-pair is different from the protocol used in coaxial cable. The bit is moved in different ways across the links based on the media used.

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