#1 Download computer science & engineering books free           #2 Display your sponsored posts here. Reach 10,000+ students. Contact: info[at]cpentalk.com for quote           #3 Take the Ultimate Trivia Quiz. See where you rank globally.
0 votes
in Computer Networks by (user.guest)

1 Answer

0 votes
by (user.guest)
Best answer

Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) messages:

• ICMP messages are used to communicate the network layer information among the hosts and routers.

Different types of ICMP messages:

Source quench message:

• It is used for performing congestion control.

• This message is sent to the host from the congested router to force the host to reduce its transmission rate.

Echo reply message:

• When an echo request of type 8 code 0 is sent to the destination, the destination host sends back the reply of Type 0 Code 0 ICMP.

TTL (Time to live) expired message:

• It is a warning message sent to the source.

• When the router notices that the TTL has expired, it discards the datagram and sends the warning message of Type 11 Code 0 to the source.

• Warning message includes the name of the router and its IP address.

Port unreachable message:

• Host sends port unreachable message of Type 3 Code 3 to the source, when the datagram contains an unlikely port number.

• When the message reaches source, source stops to send additional probe packets.

If you found this answer helpful, please upvote and share with other students in your network.

Related questions

+2 votes
1 answer
Welcome to CPEN Talk
Solution-oriented students of computer engineering on one platform to get you that


Chuck Norris doesn't needs try-catch, exceptions are too afraid to raise.