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Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) messages:

• ICMP messages are used to communicate the network layer information among the hosts and routers.

Different types of ICMP messages:

Source quench message:

• It is used for performing congestion control.

• This message is sent to the host from the congested router to force the host to reduce its transmission rate.

Echo reply message:

• When an echo request of type 8 code 0 is sent to the destination, the destination host sends back the reply of Type 0 Code 0 ICMP.

TTL (Time to live) expired message:

• It is a warning message sent to the source.

• When the router notices that the TTL has expired, it discards the datagram and sends the warning message of Type 11 Code 0 to the source.

• Warning message includes the name of the router and its IP address.

Port unreachable message:

• Host sends port unreachable message of Type 3 Code 3 to the source, when the datagram contains an unlikely port number.

• When the message reaches source, source stops to send additional probe packets.

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