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Traceroute program:

• Traceroute program is helpful to trace or know the route from one host to another host.

• It also helpful to know the names and address of the routers used between the source and hosts.

• TTL (Time to live) expired and Port unreachable messages are received at the sending host which are executes the traceroute program.

TTL expired message:

• It is a warning message sent to the source in the traceroute program.

• When the router notices that the TTL has expired, it discards the datagram and sends the warning ICMP message of Type 11 Code 0 to the source.

• Warning message includes the name of the router and its IP address.

Port unreachable message:

• Host sends port unreachable ICMP message of Type 3 Code 3 to the source, when the datagram contains an unlikely port number.

• When the message reaches source, source knows to send additional probe packets.

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