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Following are the three approaches that can be taken to avoid performance degradation of an end-to-end transport-layer TCP connection by having a single wireless link:

1. Local Recovery: In this approach, the bit errors are corrected using local recovery protocols such as 802.11 ARQ.

2. TCP sender awareness of wireless links: In this approach, TCP sender and receiver will be aware of the existence of a wireless link. Therefore, the TCP sender invokes congestion control only when congestive losses occurred in wired-network.

3. Split-connection approach: In this approach, the end-to-end connection between the mobile user and the correspondent node is broken into two transport layer connections.


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