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The message integrity scheme based on HMAC is susceptible to replay attacks when an unsecure key exchange mechanism is used to distribute secret keys.

• If an intruder acquires the Bob’s and Alice’s secret keys during key exchange, then he can send bogus message H(m’+s) to Bob as if it is sent by Alice.

• To remove this susceptibility, public key encryption can be used between two users, Bob and Alice.

• When a hashed message is received by Bob from Alice, Bob first chooses a nonce, encrypts it with Alice’s public key and sends it to Alice.

• Alice decrypts the message using her private key and sends the original nonce to Bob.

• If both are equal, Bob knows that the message is from Alice and accepts the hashed message.


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