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Three techniques for performing I/O

1. programmed I/O

This processor issues an I/O command, on behalf of a process, to an I/O module; that process busy waits for the operation to be completed before proceeds.

2. Interrupt-driven I/O

This processor issues an I/O command on behalf of process, continues to execute subsequent instructions, and is interrupted by the I/O module when the latter has completed its work.

3. Direct memory access (DMA)

A DMA module controls the exchange of data between main memory and I/O module.

When the entire block is transferred then only DMA module is interrupted.

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