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Types of Micro-operations:

Register Transfer Micro-operations: Transfer binary information from one register to another.

Arithmetic Micro-operations: Perform arithmetic operation on numeric data stored in registers.

Logical Micro-operations: Perform bit manipulation operations on data stored in registers.

Shift Micro-operations: Perform shift operations on data stored in registers.

Arithmetic Micro-operations:

The basic arithmetic micro-operations are

o Addition

o Subtraction

o Increment

o Decrement

o Shift

 The arithmetic Micro-operation defined by the statement below specifies the add micro-operation.

R3 ← R1 + R2

 It states that the contents of R1 are added to contents of R2 and sum is transferred to R3.

 To implement this statement hardware requires 3 registers and digital component that performs addition

 Subtraction is most often implemented through complementation and addition.

 The subtract operation is specified by the following statement

 R3 ← R1 + R2 + 1

 instead of minus operator, we can write as

 R2 is the symbol for the 1’s complement of R2

 Adding 1 to 1’s complement produces 2’s complement

 Adding the contents of R1 to the 2's complement of R2 is equivalent to R1-R2 Logic Micro-operations:

 Logic microoperations specify binary operations for strings of bits stored in registers.

 These operations consider each bit of the register separately and treat them as binary variables.

 For example, the exclusive-OR microoperation with the contents of two registers RI and R2 is symbolized by the statement

 It specifies a logic microoperation to be executed on the individual bits of the registers provided that the control variable P = 1

Shift Microoperations:

 Shift microoperations are used for serial transfer of data.

 The contents of a register can be shifted to the left or the right.

 During a shift-left operation the serial input transfers a bit into the rightmost position.

 During a shift-right operation the serial input transfers a bit into the leftmost position.

 There are three types of shifts: logical, circular, and arithmetic.

 The symbolic notation for the shift microoperations

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