Advantages of the TCP/IP Protocol: Following are the advantages of TCP/IP
1. Standardization: Although, computers are capable of exchanging data with each other using several data transfer methods, communication by its very definition requires the transferred information to be understood on the receiving end. A communication protocol is like a language; it enables computers to communicate with each other so that the receiving computer understands the data sent to it. TCP/IP standardizes this communication process by offering one universal protocol for all the computers over the Internet to use in their communication with each other.
2. Interoperability: Just as in human communication, computers may use several different languages to communicate with each other. Some protocols may be more suitable for use in certain private networks than TCP/IP. However, TCP/IP even enables such networks to be connected to the Internet. Furthermore, it lets computers and devices with different hardware architectures and running different operating systems communicate with each other. This means a computer running Windows can connect to a web server running Linux to browse the website hosted there. It is quite similar to the use of English as an international language today.
3. Addressing: TCP/IP assigns each computer on the network a unique address called its IP address. Thus, every computer on the network is uniquely identifiable and information could be sent to it by simply addressing its IP address. The present implementation of IP addressing is known as IPv4, while a newer implementation supporting a much larger number of unique addresses called IPv6 is being developed to replace IPv4.
4. Connection: Communication with TCP/IP starts with a connection being established between the two computers. This is achieved in a systematic manner, called the three-way TCP handshake. The computer initiating the communication sends a connection request packet to the other computer. If the computer is the one with the correct IP address, it sends a packet back. If the first computer receives that packet, it sends another one to the second computer, the reception of which by the latter establishes a connection. The information is then exchanged using this established connection, reducing the risk of the data being compromised.OP does not unreliable measures to connection.
Disadvantages of TCP/IP Protocol
Following are the disadvantages of TCP/IP Protocol:
1. SYN Attacks: The internet protocol uses a three-way handshake system. Under this system, the user contacts a server, which then sends a response back to the user asking the user to confirm the connection. The computer hosting the connection must then wait 75 seconds to receive a response to the acknowledgment, to compensate for network slowdown. SYN attacks work by - sending the first request but not the second over and over again. This monopolizes the computer's resources, causing other legitimate connections to fail.
2. Sequence Manipulation: The internet protocol keeps packets of information in sequence. If a user goes offline, either by a malicious user's designs or other means, any computers it is currently communicating with will close the connection if a response without the proper sequence number is received. If a user intercepts these messages he can discern the ID number and respond as the user, resulting in communication with the machine being hijacked. This can cause theft of important data.
3. Amorphous Identification: The internet protocol was designed to only allow a single connection at a time and to have this connection be routed to a definite user. As the internet has progressed and IP address space becomes increasingly precious, this address space is no longer dedicated and is usually assigned among a pool of users. This lack of unique identification makes it hard to verify a user and adds to the complexity of an application's security by removing trust in the identity of the user.
4. DNS Flaws: The Domain Name Service (DNS) is a way of looking up the IP address of a domain name. Internet protocol can only communicate to IP addresses, requiring Internet communication to occur through a DNS server maintained by your Internet Service Provider. This flaw can be exploited by redirecting domain names to different IP addresses.