Four types of network topologies are commonly employed for local area networks:
(a) Star networks with either an active switch or a passive fiber optic star coupler at the hub. directly connected to each station. A passive star coupler broadcasts data to all connected stations.
(b) Bus networks in which stations tap into a single cable. Several segments may be interconnected by repeaters or gateways to increase the distance covered or the number of stations. Information is broadcasted to all connected stations.
(c) Ring networks in which each node is connected to two adjacent nodes and information is passed around the ring from one node to the next.
(d) A tree network such as employed in a broadband system with a head amplifier (which changes the transmit frequencies to receive frequencies) connected by successive branches to a large user population.