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Address Binding and Relocation

To solve the problem, we need to set up some kind of correspondence between “program addresses” and “real addresses”. This can be done: 

at compile time:

– requires knowledge of absolute addresses; e.g. DOS .com files.

• at load time:

– when program loaded, work out position in memory and update every relevant instruction in code with correct addresses. 

– must be done every time program is loaded

– ok for embedded systems / boot-loaders

at run-time:

– get some hardware to automatically translate between program addresses and real addresses. 

– no changes at all required to program itself.

– most popular and flexible scheme, providing we have the requisite hardware, viz. a memory management unit or MMU.

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