Three-address code is a sequence of statements of the general form : X := Y Op Z where x, y, and z are names, constants, or compiler-generated temporaries; op stands for any operator, such as a fixed- or floating-point arithmetic operator, or a logical operator on Boolean-valued data. Note that no built-up arithmetic expressions are permitted, as there is only one operator on the right side of a statement. Thus a source language expression like x+y*z might be translated into a sequence
t1 := y * z
t2 : = x + t1
Where t1 and t2 are compiler-generated temporary names. This unraveling of complicated arithmetic expressions and of nested flow-of-control statements makes three-address code desirable for target code generation and optimization. The use of names for the intermediate values computed by a program allow- three-address code to be easily rearranged – unlike postfix notation. Three - address code is a linearzed representation of a syntax tree or a dag in which explicit names correspond to the interior nodes of the graph.
Intermediate code using Syntax for the above arithmetic expression
t1 := -c
t2 := b * t1
t3 := -c
t4 := b * t3
t5 := t2 + t4
a := t5
The reason for the term three-address code is that each statement usually contains three addresses, two for the operands and one for the result. In the implementations of three-address code given later in this section, a programmer-defined name is replaced by a pointer tc a symbol-table entry for that name.