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The scope rules of a language decide how to reference the non-local variables. There are two methods that are commonly used: 

1. Static or Lexical scoping: It determines the declaration that applies to a name by examining the program text alone. E.g., Pascal, C and ADA. 

2. Dynamic Scoping: It determines the declaration applicable to a name at run time, by considering the current activations. E.g., Lisp

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