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Program Counter (PC)

This 16-bit register deals with sequencing the execution of instructions. This register is a memory pointer. The microprocessor uses this register to sequence the execution of the instructions. The function of the program counter is to point to the memory address from which the next byte is to be fetched. When a byte is being fetched, the program counter is automatically incremented by one to point to the next memory location. 

Stack Pointer (SP)

The stack pointer is also a 16-bit register, used as a memory pointer. It points to a memory location in R/W memory, called stack. The beginning of the stack is defined by loading 16-bit address in the stack pointer. 

Instruction Register/Decoder

It is an 8-bit register that temporarily stores the current instruction of a program. Latest instruction sent here from memory prior to execution. Decoder then takes instruction and decodes or interprets the instruction. Decoded instruction then  passed to next stage.


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