In Ariane 5 launcher system, the developers reused the component from a previous version of the launcher (the Inertial Navigation System) Ariane 4 which was successful without any exceptions. The component was not modified for Ariane 5, it also consists of additional functionality that was not required for Ariane 5.
First test flight of the Ariane 5 rocket ended in disaster when the launcher went out of control 37 seconds after take off. The software failed due to unhandled exception that caused the run-time system to shutdown. The functionality that failed in this component was not required in Ariane 5.