Memory to processor: The processor reads an instruction or a unit of data from memory. Processor to memory: The processor writes a unit of data to memory. I/O to processor: The processor reads data from an I/O device via an I/O module. Processor to I/O: The processor sends data to the I/O device. I/O to or from memory: For these two cases, an I/O module is allowed to exchange data directly with memory, without going through the processor, using direct memory access (DMA).