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Some of the modes in which data can be transferred from the I/O devices to the CPU are:

  • Programmed I/O: Data transfer is initiated by the instructions contained in the program.
  • Interrupt I/O: In this method the I/O devices sends a request or a message to the CPU which is known as an interrupt. On getting this request, the CPU  momentarily stops processing whatever task it may be on, and then attends to this interrupt message. 
  • DMA (Direct Memory Access): In DMA, the CPU is not involved in the transfer of data. The DMA controller handles the buses used to transfer between I/O devices and the memory unit.

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