Throughput can be defined as the number of processes that complete their execution per unit time, or simply put the amount of work completed by the CPU in a given amount o time.
Turnaround time refers to the amount of time it takes to complete or execute a particular process. This time is the total time from when it is submitted to when it is executed which incudes the waiting queue time, execution on CPU and I/O.
Waiting time is simply the amount of time the it takes for a process to leave the ready queue to be executed by the CPU.
Response time refers to the time it takes from when a process is submitted to when the first response of the request is produced.